Saturday, 9 December 2017

wiki hoan-e̍k Jan Ingenhousz

Jan Ingenhousz

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Jan Ingenhousz
Jan Ingenhousz.jpg
Born8 December 1730
BredaStaats-BrabantDutch Republic
Died7 September 1799 (aged 68)
Calne, Wiltshire, Great Britain
ResidenceBreda, London, Vienna, Calne
NationalityDutch
Alma materCatholic University of Leuven
Known forPhotosynthesis
Scientific career
FieldsPhysiology
InfluencesPieter van Musschenbroek
David Gaub
Jan Ingenhousz or Ingen-Housz FRS (8 December 1730 – 7 September 1799) 是 1 ê 荷蘭 ê 生理學者, 生物學家 kap 化學家. I siōng 出名 ê tāi-chì sī 發現kng-ha̍p(光合)作用 (photosynthesis)。 I 證明 tī 綠色植物 吸收 CO2 放出 O2 ê  過程 nih,光線是必要ê.[1][2][3]  I 也發現植物 chhaⁿ-chhiuⁿ 動物 kâng-khoán ē 有細胞ê呼吸作用( cellular respiration.)[4] I 一生nih siōng hō͘ 人知影 ê tāi-chì koh 有 tī 1768 年,i kā Vienna ê Habsburg 家族成員做疫苗接種治療 chúi-chu(水疽,天花), 了後 i tio̍h 變做 Austrian  Empress Maria Theresa [5]  ê 私人諮詢顧問kap 個人醫師。

早期

 I 出世 tī 荷蘭共和國 Staats-Brabant êBreda, 貴族 Ingen Housz 家族。I 自 16歲 開始 tī Leuven 大學 研習 醫學, 1753 tī hia the̍h tio̍h MD。了後 I lâu tī Leiden 大學 繼續去 聽別人講課2年,其中 Pieter van Musschenbroek, 引 Ingenhousz i kui 世人 lóng 對 電學 有興趣。 In 1755 I 轉去 Breda, 開始一般醫療. Work with smallpox

對 chúi-chu ê 工作[edit]

In lāu-pē tī 1764七月 過身了後, Ingenhousz 想beh 周游 歐洲去研究, 開頭tī 英國i beh 學 對治 chúi-chu siōng新 ê 接種技術. 通過John Pringle 醫師(àn 1740 年代 in tio̍h 是家族世交)牽線, I 真kín tio̍h tī London kap 人 真有價值ê 連繫,了後 1767 i tio̍h 變做 1 ê 接種大師. 1767, kā 700 ê 庄頭 ê 人接種, tī Hertfordshire 得tio̍h 史詩級 ê 勝利. 1768, Maria Theresa 女王 讀 tio̍h Pringle 寫 ê 批講, 英國 對治 chúi-chu ê 大成功, tng hit時 tī in Austrian 帝國 tú 建立另 1 種激烈ê,倒péng ê 接種技術. I 決定 kā ka-kī 家族 做 tāi-seng 來 接受接種 ( hi-chūn i 有 1 ê 外甥 已經死 ah), 而且 請求英國 王室 ê 幫助. Teh Pringle ê 推薦之下, Ingenhousz hông 選出來 也 hông 支派去 Austria. I 已經 計劃 beh 用 針 kap 線 chhak 來 接種, he 針線 先 抹 感染別人ê chúi-chu 細菌。 Chit ê 想法,是 kā 健康ê 人 種少少ê細菌, i ê 身體 ē 發展 產生tùi chúi-chu ê 免疫。 I chit ê 接種 真成功, i 變做 Maria Theresa ê 宮廷醫師, sóa tī hia khiā,1775 nî kap Agatha Maria Jacquin 結婚。

研究光學作用[edit]


1770 年代 Ingenhousz 對 植物ê 氣體交換作用 有興趣。 I kap 科學家 Joseph Priestley (1733–1804)1771 五月23 tī in Birstall, West Yorkshire ê 厝 會談了後, 開始研究。Priestley 有發現 植物 會 吸收 氣體。Ingenhousz tī 北英國 ê 交陪 也 有 Benjamin Franklin。 1779年Ingenhousz 發現 植物ê 綠色部份 nā 有 光線chhiō tio̍h ē puh pho, nā 無 光線, puh pho tio̍h ē 停。[6] I 確認 che pho 是 sàng素(O2), I 也 siāng時 發現 tī 暗ê 所在, 植物 放出來 ê 是 CO2。 I 知影,植物 放 ê O2 ê 量 比 i 吸收 ê CO2 ê量 khah 少, 所以, ē-tàng 知影 植物 ê 生長 1 部份 是 對 空氣來, m̄是對 水 iah-sī 塗 來。

Other work[edit]

In addition to his work in The Netherlands and Vienna, Ingenhousz spent time in France, England, Scotland, and Switzerland, among other places. He carried out research in electricity, heat conduction, and chemistry, and was in close and frequent correspondence with both Benjamin Franklin and Henry Cavendish.[7] In 1785, he described the irregular movement of coal dust on the surface of alcohol and therefore has a claim as discoverer of what came to be known as Brownian motion. Ingenhousz was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1769.

Blue plaque, Church Street, Calne
In 1799, Ingenhousz died at Bowood HouseCalne, England, and was buried in the churchyard of St Mary the Virgin, Calne. His wife died the following year.[8]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Beale and Beale, Echoes of Ingen Housz, 2011
  2. Jump up^ Gest, Howard (2000). "Bicentenary homage to Dr Jan Ingen-Housz, MD (1730-1799), pioneer of photosynthesis research". Photosynthesis Research63 (2): 183–90. doi:10.1023/A:1006460024843PMID 16228428.
  3. Jump up^ Geerd Magiels, Dr. Jan Ingenhousz, or why don't we know who discovered photosynthesis1st Conference of the European Philosophy of Science Association 2007
  4. Jump up^ Howard Gest (1997). "A 'misplaced chapter' in the history of photosynthesis research; the second publication (1796) on plant processes by Dr Jan Ingen-Housz, MD, discoverer of photosynthesis. A bicentenniel 'resurrection'" (PDF)Photosynthesis Research53: 65–72. doi:10.1023/A:1005827711469.
  5. Jump up^ Ingen Housz JM, Beale N, Beale E (2005). "The life of Dr Jan Ingen Housz (1730–99), private counsellor and personal physician to Emperor Joseph II of Austria". J Med Biogr13(1): 15–21. PMID 15682228.
  6. Jump up^ Jan Ingenhousz, Experiments upon Vegetables, Discovering Their great Power of purifying the Common Air in the Sun-shine, and of Injuring it in the Shade and at Night. To Which is Joined, A new Method of examining the accurate Degree of Salubrity of the Atmosphere, London, 1779. From Henry Marshall Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400–1900, New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 1952. Excerpts. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  7. Jump up^ Smith, Edgar F. (1926). "Forgotten Chemists"Journal of Chemical Education3: 29–40. Bibcode:1926JChEd...3...29Sdoi:10.1021/ed003p29. Archived from the originalon 2012-06-30.
  8. Jump up^ Van Klooster; H. S. (1952). "Jan Ingenhousz"Journal of Chemical Education29 (7): 353–355. Bibcode:1952JChEd..29..353Vdoi:10.1021/ed029p353. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12.

Further reading[edit]

  • Norman and Elaine Beale, Echoes of Ingen Housz. The long lost story of the genius who rescued the Habsburgs from smallpox and became the father of photosynthesis. 630 pages, with a foreword by David Bellamy, Hobnob Press, July 2011, ISBN 1-906978-14-X.
  • Geerdt Magiels, From sunlight to insight. Jan IngenHousz, the discovery of photosynthesis & science in the light of ecology. VUB Press, 2009, ISBN 978-90-5487-645-8.
  • Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger Stanley (2006). "Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz". Perspect. Biol. Med. United States. 49 (3): 330–45. doi:10.1353/pbm.2006.0036ISSN 0031-5982PMID 16960304.
  • Smit, P. (1980). "Jan Ingen-Housz (1730–1799): some new evidence about his life and work". Janus. Netherlands. 67 (1–2–3): 125–39. ISSN 0021-4264PMID 11610754.

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